Thursday, 18 May 2017

A guide to chemical properties of tyres

Tyres became synonymous with industrialised societies during the 20th century and while rubber remains a leading compound, a typical truck tyre also contains many different chemicals. These chemical properties vary for each tyre depending on manufacturing industries and use on different tracks. For instance, racing-specific tyres must cope with high heat and friction as compared to the usual passenger-car wheels which is the reason a higher percentage of chemicals and synthetics are used in these.

The rubber chemical properties
Around 60 percent of a typical truck tyre is rubber that consists of four different sub-components namely natural rubber, poly-butadiene rubber, styrene-butadiene rubber and butyl rubber. More or less 55-percent of a tyre’s rubber content is found in the tread and sidewall.

Most of the manufacturers use styrene and poly-butadiene along with natural rubber in the areas. Butyl and halogenated butyl rubber forms the inner liner of a truck tyre whereas rubber mixture in a standard passenger-vehicle is 55-percent synthetic and 45-percent natural rubber approximately.

Chemical fillers
Additives and fillers further add chemicals to the tyres. Reinforcing chemical agents are used in a high percentage with chemical filler and the most common of these are silica, resin and carbon black. Most of the tyre makers use antioxidants, waxes and paraffin alongside adhesion booster such as brass on wire, cobalt salts and resin on fabrics during production.

Sulphur is used as a healing or curative agent with peptisers, oils,tackifiersand softeners as other chemical extracts. Some other additives used in the production of tyres are aramid fibre, rayon, steel fabric, cotton, fibreglass and polyester.

Chemical properties by weight
A renowned tyre and rubber company outlined that the most common is the all-season for passenger vehicle that weighs more or less 22 pounds. This particular tyre consists of five different synthetic rubbers weighing 6.0 lbs. and eight genres of natural rubber bearing weight 4.5 lbs.

The carbon black covers 5.0 lbs. of the tyre with 1.5 lbs. of steel thread and further 2.0 lbs. of each nylon, steel and polyester filament. In the end, production of the tyre reaches its final stage with 40 different waxes, chemical agents, pigments and waxes weighing 3.0 lbs.

By-product count in tyres
A report published in 1995 was based on the analysis of by-product chemicals in the ash of burnt tyres. Conclusive evidence of zinc oxide represents 37.8 percent whereas silica dioxide accounted for 22.3 percent. That’s not all; truck tyre also has 7.4 percent of ferric oxide, 5.7 percent of Lime and around 7-percent of sulphate ions are present as well. The ash also contained by-product count of titanium oxide, sodium oxide, magnesium oxide, aluminium oxide and potassium oxide in combination represented 6.0 percent.

Trace elements
Researchers at the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki in their 2002 study found traces of elemental metals in truck tyre composition. Zinc is among the most prevalent at 10,000 parts per million followed by copper at about 75, barium composites are 25 and lead 20. Lesser traces of chromium, strontium, nickel and vanadium were also found in the research.

It’s always good to know about the chemical properties our Falken tires are composed of. The above details would definitely come in handy!


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